Clauses of Contrast - QUYNH HUONG CENTER FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRANSLATION & EDUCATION

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19 May 2014

Clauses of Contrast

Whereas

Used to compare or contrast: Some of the studies show positive results, whereas others do not.

Despite

Used to show that sth happened or is true although sth else might have happened to prevent it. SYN in spite of: Despite applying for hundreds of jobs, he is still out of work. She was good at physics despite the fact that she found it boring.
Despite yourself used to show that sb did not intend to do the thing mentioned. SYN in spite of: He had to laugh despite himself.

In spite of

In spite of sth: if you say that sb did sth in spite of a fact, you mean it is surprising that that fact did not prevent them from doing it. SYN despite: In spite of his age, he still leads an active life. They went swimming in spite of all the danger signs. English became the official language for business in spite of the fact that the population was largely Chinese.
In spite of yourself: if you do sth in spite of yourself, you do it although you did not intend or expect to: He fell asleep, in spite of himself.

Otherwise

Used to state what the result would be if sth did not happen or if the situation were different: My parents lent me the money. Otherwise, I couldn't have afforded the trip. Shut the window, otherwise it'll get too cold in here.
Apart from that: There was some music playing upstairs. Otherwise the house was silent. He was slightly bruised but otherwise unhurt.
In a different way to the way mentioned, differently: It is not permitted to sell or otherwise distribute copies of past examination papers. You know what this is about. Why pretend otherwise (= that you do not)? I wanted to see him but he was otherwise engaged (= doing sth else).
IDIOMS
Or otherwise: used to refer to sth that is different from or the opposite of what has just been mentioned: It was necessary to discover the truth or otherwise of these statements. We insure against all damage, accidental or otherwise.

Or

And / or conjunction: (Informal) used when you say that two situations exist together, or as an alternative to each other: There is no help for those with lots of luggage and / or small children.

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